What are the most common ways of controlling a company?

Through ownership arrangements:

  • Ownership of shares.
  • Ownership of voting rights.
  • Other ownership arrangements, e.g. nominees, trusts, joint ownership.
  • The right to appoint/ remove the majority of directors in the company (or equivalent management body)
  • Personal connections or contractual associations with individuals in management or Board positions
  • Right to otherwise exert significant influence on the company’s activities, e.g. decision rights, voting rights, right to profit, etc